Forthcoming in 2023:

Sixth-generation contact German in South Africa: The case of Kroondal German

by Sheena Shah, Theresa Biberauer & Erika Herrmann


Kroondal German is an undescribed, matrilectal, sixth-generation variety of German spoken by a few hundred people living in a village in North West Province, South Africa. Employing a comparative approach, this eBook describes and analyses phonological, morphosyntactic and lexical properties of Kroondal German, and considers the different factors that have shaped it, including the northern German roots introduced by its missionary founders, the speakers’ extensive exposure to Standard German, and their daily contact with Afrikaans and South African English. The description is informed by extensive data from a range of spoken and written sources, as well as WhatsApp exchanges, and native-speaker acceptability judgements. The eBook includes audio recordings, maps, and illustrations.